march 2020 • The Journal of Infectious Diseases

Public Health Measures to Slow Community Spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019

Benjamin J Cowling, Allison E Aiello

DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa123

Key message

Medidas não farmacológicas incluem medidas de proteção individual e medidas ambientais; Isolamento de doentes e quarentena de pessoas expostas e Medidas comunitárias de mitigação. A aplicação de várias medidas não farmacológicas, adaptadas ao local e à população, devem ser consideradas e aplicadas rapidamente para conter a transmissão generalizada. Quando as medidas não farmacológicas são reativas à transmissão generalizada, em vez de pro-ativas ao potencial de transmissão, geralmente tem impacto reduzido na mitigação da carga de doença.

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially identified in an outbreak of viral pneumonia in Wuhan, People’s Republic of China, in December 2019, and it has now been recognized in 77 countries with over 90 000 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 3000 deaths as of March 3, 2020. The epidemiology of COVID-19 has recently become clearer as incident cases continue to rise and researchers refine estimates of the severity, transmissibility, and populations affected. Based on available data, COVID-19 is efficiently transmitted in the community, and the proportion of infections leading to severe illness is particularly high among adults ≥50 years of age and among individuals with comorbid health conditions. Although rare, severe cases have also been reported among younger individuals. Thus far, the estimated basic reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher than that of influenza, as is the case fatality risk for adults and older individuals.